Korean Philosophy Society for Sport & Dance

Journal Archive

The Journal of the Korean Society for the Philosophy of Sport, Dance, & Martial Arts - Vol. 27 , No. 2

[ 무용철학 ]
The Journal of the Korean Society for the Philosophy of Sport, Dance, & Martial Arts - Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.57-68
Abbreviation: KSPSDM
ISSN: 1229-5663 (Print)
Print publication date 30 Jun 2019
Received 10 May 2019 Revised 23 May 2019 Accepted 02 Jun 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31694/PM.2019.06.27.2.005

Human Completion from the Perspective of the means and Purpose of Yoga
Me Suk Kim** ; Young Hee Lim
Sungshin Women`s University

요가의 방편과 목적측면에서 본 인간완성
김미숙** ; 임영희
성신여자대학교
Correspondence to : **mshb0320@naver.com


Copyrightⓒ2019 KSPSDM
Funding Information ▼

Abstract

The fundamental goal of yoga is to keep the peace and stability of the mind in place, and to be free of anxiety and confusion; this means to seek one’s true self (Atman). Yoga is one of the six philosophies of ancient Hinduism, and the yoga sutras represent the oldest yoga traditions. The yoga sutras were compiled by Patanjali and consist of a total of 196 simple maxims or aphorisms. The yoga sutras deal with eight components of yoga, called the Ashtanga. One of them, Asana, consists of natural-based gestures, connected with breathing and meditation in every posture. Pranayama is located in the middle of the mind and body, allowing the body to balance itself, between a healthy body and Atman. The sports community believes that many problems can be solved through practicing yoga. However, in physical education, studies of yoga performance are mainly focused on Asana. On the other hand, studies about the structural relationship between the universe and the mind, which is at the core of yoga, are insufficient. If the function of physical education is to create an ideal human body, or a human being with a complete personality through harmony based on knowledge, righteousness, and determination, then physical education matches the means and the purpose of yoga. This study discusses the structure of the universe and mind, and seeks to derive an understanding of human perfection in physical education based on the nature and composition of yoga. This study found that physical training of Asana and physical education are the means. Furthermore, the ultimate goal of both is human perfection, which constitutes a true person. Lastly, yoga training and physical training should be preceded by a philosophical understanding of human beings.

초록

요가수련의 궁극적 목표는 자신의 내면 깊은 곳에 내재 되어 있는 Atman에 도달하는데 목표를 두고 있고, 이를 위하여 신체를 단련하며, 정신과 육체가 균형을 이룰 수 있도록 한다. 요가는 고대 힌두교의 6대 철학 중 하나이며, 요가수트라는 요가에 관한 가장 오래된 경전이다. 요가수트라는 파탄잘리에 의해 체계화되었으며, 아쉬탕가로 알려진 8가지의 가지로 구성되어있다. 아쉬탕가의 한 부류인 아사나는 자연에 기초한 동작들로 구성되며 모든 동작에 호흡과 명상이 깃들어있다. 체육계에서는 요가수행을 통해 스포츠 일탈에 많은 문제점들을 해결할 수 있다고 보고 있다. 그러나 체육에서의 연구는 주로 아사나(동작)에 집중되어있으며, 요가에서 가장 핵심으로 삼고 있는 우주와 마음의 구조관계에 대한 철학적 연구는 미흡한 실정이다. 체육이 인간의 신체적 활동, 그 중에서도 대근활동(大筋活動)을 통한 신체의 교육인 동시에, 이 신체적 활동을 수단으로 하여 이상적인 인간상, 즉 사회가 요구하는 지(知)·정(情)·의(意) 및 신체 각 측면의 조화를 통한 완성된 인격을 가진 인간을 만들려는 교육적 작용이라면 이는 요가에서 추구하는 수단과 목적측면에서 일치한다고 볼 수 있다. 논의 절차는 요가의 본질과 구성을 토대로 우주와 마음의 구조에 대해 논의하였으며, 체육의 인간완성의 이해를 도출해 내고자 하였다. 연구결과는 첫째, 요가의 아사나와 체육의 신체단련은 방편(수단)에 해당되며, 둘째 궁극의 목적은 인간완성=참진아를 찾는 데 있음을 알 수 있었다. 셋째, 아사나와 신체단련은 인간의 철학적 이해가 선행되어야 함을 알 수 있었다.


Keywords: yoga, means, human completion, true self
키워드: 요가, 수단, 인간완성, 진아

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Sungshin Women’s University Research Grant of 2017


References
1. Choi Jeong-eum translation (2004). Hata-yoga and meditation. Seoul; the history of the world of mind.
2. Feuerstein, G. (1998). The yoga tradition, its history, literature, philosophy and practice. Arizona: Hohm Press
3. Ha nam-gil (2004). Understanding of motion art and science. Seoul: Daehanmedia.
4. Ha Yeon-ju, Shin Hyun-gun (2010). Educational Realization through Somatic Yoga. Journal of Korean Philosophy Society for Sport Dance. 18(4), 261-276.
5. Jung Tae Hyuk (2003). Yoga Upanishads. Seoul: In a world public.
6. Go Eun-sil, (2017). Hands-on art education in the AI eraKorean Academy of Arts and Education. p23
7. Kang Yeo-joo, Yoon Ye-tak (2004). Phenomenological Analysis on the Performance Experience of Yoga Performers. Journal of the Korean Sports Association. 43(4), 25-34.
8. Kim Liang-hee, Park Hyun-woo (2006). The Meaning of Yoga in Well-being Society. Journal of Korean Philosophy Society for Sport Dance, 14(4), 153-168.
9. Kim Oh Joong (1973). Physical Education. Seoul: Bobmunsa.
10. Kim Sang Doo, Won Joo-Yeon and Kim Yoon-Taek (2003). Introduction to Physical Education. Seoul: DK Books
11. Kim Sun-hee, Kwon Oh-ryun (2006). The Physical Value of Yoga and Meaning of Teacher. Journal of Korean Philosophy Society for Sport Dance. 14(4), 37-50.
12. Kim Sun-hee, Kwon Oh-ryun (2010). A Study on the Practical Tasks of Yoga. Journal of Korean Philosophy Society for Sport Dance, 8(3), 173-184.
13. Kornfield, J. (1979). Intersive insight meditation:A phenomenological study. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. 11(1). 41-58.
14. Lee Tae Young (1992). A Study on the Practice of Yoga. Korea Society for Indian Philosophy. 12. 81-104.
15. Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. 1. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 122. ISBN 978-0823931798.
16. Noh Hee Duk (1969). A Study on the Nature of Physical Education. Physical Education, 36.
17. Oberteuffer. D. (1945). Some Contributions of Physical Educations to an Educated life. Journal of Health, Recreation, and Physical Education. 16(3).
18. Park Hyun-woo, Kim Boo-chan (2005). The humane search of sports. Chonnam National University. pp.20-273.
19. Shapairo, D. (1992). A preliminary study of long-term meditators: goals, effects, religious orientation, cognitions. The journal of transpersonal .
20. Shin Hyun Kyu (2008). In search of the definition of physical education. Journal of Korean Philosophy Society for Sport Dance. 16(1), 79-98.
21. Shin Jung Ho (2004). The human body in the Indian Philosophy. Journal of Korean Philosophy Society for Sport Dance, 12(2), 41-59.
22. Shin Jung Ho (2005). Yoga in Physical Educition-Sports. Journal of Korea Sports Research. 16(5).
23. Won Won Hye (1992). Phenomenological Approach to the Yoga Experience. Master's thesis at Sookmyung Women's University.
24. https://yoganama.com/what-are-yamas-niyamas-and-ashtanga-yoga-of-patanjali/
25. 川村英男 (1959). 體育原理. 東京.體育の 科學社